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Thermosphere (solar and Thermal Environment)
VENUS GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC
MODEL (Venus-GRAM 2005)
Marshall Space Flight Center’s Natural Environments Branch has
developed Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) for
Mars, Venus, Earth, and other solar system destinations.
Venus-GRAM is based on the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR)
Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and is
suitable for a variety of engineering applications at all
attitudes, locations, and times within the atmosphere of
Venus. Click here for
Language: FORTRAN 77
Operating System: PC/DOS, Unix, Linux
Hardware Requirements: Runs on PC (or compatible) and on
most Unix or Linux hardware
- Maintenance/ Upgrades: On an
as needed basis
- Source Code: Source code is available (re-compile required on non-PC
- Cost: Program: No cost, publicly available
- Distribution: Contact Hilary Justh (contact information
- Manuals: README files
- Training: No
Input Description: Geographic position and time.
Output Format: Density, temperature, pressure, winds, and
selected atmospheric constituents.
Verification/ Validation: Venus-GRAM has been validated against data from Pioneer,
Venera and Vega Venus entry probes and landers.
NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
MSFC, AL 35812
Phone: (256) 544-3694
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